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Jessop et al., 2014, Study 1: Affirming values increased exercise but also implementing if-then strategies eliminated this effect among adults one week later


Jessop, D. C., Sparks, P., Buckland, N., Harris, P. R., & Churchill, S. (2013). Combining self-affirmation and implementation intentions: Evidence of detrimental effects on behavioral outcomes. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47(2), 137-147.
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Adults who described times they had behaved kindly toward others (a type of values-affirmation) before receiving information about the health risks of a lack of exercise reported exercising more over the next week; however, if people also completed an implementation intention exercise (reflecting on how, when, and where they would increase their exercise) this benefit was eliminated.

Psychological Process:

Psychological Process 2:

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Selves (My Own and Others')

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

Changing beliefs about goals

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Where and when will I accomplish my goals?

Psychological Process 3:


What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning


Psychological Question Addressed

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Intervention Technique:

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Walton & Wilson, 2018