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Hall et al., 2007: Attributing academic failure as unstable and controllable increased final course grades among undergraduates, especially among high-elaborative learning students

Reference:

Hall, N. C., Perry, R. P., Goetz, T., Ruthig, J. C., Stupnisky, R. H., & Newall, N. E. (2007). Attributional retraining and elaborative learning: Improving academic development through writing-based interventions. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(3), 280-290.
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Summary:

Undergraduate introductory psychology students read a 1-page handout summarizing how adopting controllable patterns of causal attributions can improve motivation and performance. They then wrote about either a recent instance of academic struggle and to elaborate on its emotional impact (affective writing assignment) or summarized the main points of the handout, described how they could apply these ideas to their own studies, and completed the affective writing assignment (cognitive writing assignment). Among students high in elaborative learning (e.g., “When I study for this class, I pull together information from different sources, such as lectures, readings, and discussions”), the cognitive writing assignment raised final course grades in psychology and grade-point average relative to a randomized control condition. For students low in elaborative learning, the affective writing assignment raised final course grades.

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Approach to Desired Meaning

What about it?

Changing beliefs about ability or potential

Psychological Question Addressed

Does struggling mean I can’t do it?

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Does struggling mean I can’t do it?

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018