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Pham & Taylor, 1999: Reflecting about study habits instead of getting a grade increased exam scores among undergraduates one week later

Reference:

Pham, L. B., & Taylor, S. E. (1999). From thought to action: Effects of process-versus outcome-based mental simulations on performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(2), 250-260.
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Summary:

Undergraduates asked to mentally simulate the process for doing well on an exam (good study habits), as compared to those asked to simulate a positive outcome (getting a good grade) or those in a control condition, earned higher exam scores 1 week later. The intervention also increased planning, reduced anxiety, and increased studying.

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Approach to Desired Meaning

What about it?

Changing beliefs about goals

Psychological Question Addressed

How will I accomplish my goals?

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

How will I accomplish my goals?

Social Area:

Intervention Technique:

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018