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Ruthig et al., 2004: Attributing academic failure as unstable and controllable, or attributing academic performance to effort, increased first year GPA among optimistic, first-year undergraduate students

Reference:

Ruthig, J. C., Perry, R. P., Hall, N. C., & Hladkyj, S. (2004). Optimism and Attributional Retraining: Longitudinal Effects on Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety, and Voluntary Course Withdrawal in College Students 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(4), 709-730.
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Summary:

First-year undergraduate introductory psychology students either viewed a video in which two students discussed their academic experiences and how putting forth more effort improved grades; viewed the video followed by a short group discussion that emphasized the importance of attributing college performance to effort; or read a handout that emphasized the importance of adopting adaptive attributions for academic failures. As compared to a randomized control group, all three treatments raised first-year grade-point-average and reduced course dropping for over-optimistic students. There were no effects for low-optimistic students.

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Approach to Desired Meaning

What about it?

Changing beliefs about ability or potential

Psychological Question Addressed

Does struggling mean I can’t do it?

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Does struggling mean I can’t do it?

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Intervention Technique:

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018