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Aronson et al., 2002: Learning, and then writing letters about developing your intelligence to middle schoolers, increased grades among college students over the following academic term

Reference:

Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113-125.
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Summary:

College students were asked to serve as pen pal mentors to a struggling middle school student, wrote the student an encouraging letter, received a thank you note from the student and his or her teacher, wrote a second letter, and then rewrote their letters into a brief speech that was audiotaped for future at-risk children. In the growth-mindset condition, students were encouraged to help the middle school student see intelligence as a capacity that can grow “like a muscle” with mental work, watched a brief video that discussed how intelligence can grow throughout life, and were encouraged to incorporate examples in their letters from their own life to illustrate how intelligence can grow. Control students either wrote similar letters but about how intelligence is not one thing but many or wrote no letters. As compared to both control conditions, students in the growth-mindset condition earned higher grades the next academic term and African American students reported enjoying school more and being more invested in doing well.

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Psychological Question Addressed

Is intelligence fixed or can it grow

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Is intelligence fixed or can it grow

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Intervention Technique:

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018