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Duckworth et al., 2011: Reflecting about obstacles and solutions, when doing practice tests, increased likelihood of completing more practice problems among high schoolers

Reference:

Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31(1), 17-26.
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Summary:

High school students in a socioeconomically and diverse school preparing to take a high stakes exam imagined “as vividly as possible” two positive outcomes associated with completing all of the practice tests and two obstacles that could prevent them from doing so. They then wrote what they would do if each obstacle arose following an “If… , then…” template (“mental contrasting with implementation intentions”). As compared to an active control condition, this led students to complete 60% more practice problems.

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Approach to Desired Meaning

What about it?

Changing beliefs about goals

Psychological Question Addressed

How will I accomplish my goals?

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

How will I accomplish my goals?

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Intervention Technique:

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018