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Schulz, 1976: Controlling or predicting college student visits increased health and well-being among retirement-home residents over 2 months but decreased these outcomes after 42 months

Reference:

Schulz, R. (1976). Effects of control and predictability on the physical and psychological well-being of the institutionalized aged. Journal of personality and social psychology, 33(5), 563.
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Summary:

Retirement-home residents were given the opportunity to control or to predict when a college student visitor would come visit them over a 2-month period, or received the same number and length of visits but without this predictability, or no visits. At 2-months, residents in the former conditions reported being happier and having more “zest for life” and were rated as being healthier and showed a smaller increase in the use of medications. Then the visits ended. At 42-months, residents in the former conditions were rated as having less “zest for live” and as less healthy and had a mortality rate of 20% as compared to 0% in the random-visit and no-visit conditions (Schulz & Hanusa, 1978).

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Approach to Desired Meaning

What about it?

Changing beliefs about ability or potential

Psychological Question Addressed

Can I control important aspects of my life?

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Can I control important aspects of my life?

Social Area:

Intervention Technique:

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018