<go to database

Paluck et al., 2016: Encouraging anti-conflict behaviors reduced disciplinary problems among 56 middle schools, especially when these behaviors were taught to influential students


Paluck, E. L., Shepherd, H., & Aronow, P. M. (2016). Changing climates of conflict: A social network experiment in 56 schools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(3), 566-571.
Download PDF


Fifty-six middle schools were randomized to an intervention in which 15% of students at each treated school were randomized to receive an anti-conflict norm intervention or not. The intervention comprised every-other-week meetings to encourage students to identify common conflict behaviors, to oppose those behaviors publicly, to create hashtag slogans and online and physical posters including their own photographs, and to distribute distinctive wristbands to students seen mitigating conflict. A total of 728 students received the intervention. This reduced disciplinary problems among the 11,938 students in the treated schools over a year by 30%. The greatest effects were observed in schools in which more of the participating students were influential within the school peer network and thus positioned to alter school norms.

Psychological Process:

Psychological Process 2:


What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning


Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Social Area:

Intervention Technique:

Share This Post:

Posted By:

Greg Walton & Timothy Wilson