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Duckworth et al., 2013: Reflecting about obstacles and solutions, about personal goals, improved academic achievement among urban 5th graders over a quarter

Reference:

Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Gollwitzer, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). From fantasy to action: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) improves academic performance in children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(6), 745-753.
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Summary:

Asking urban 5th grade students to identify an important personal goal relevant to their school work and to write about obstacles that could prevent them from achieving this goal and what they would do if such obstacles arose following an “If… , then…” template (“mental contrasting with implementation intentions”) improved students’ grades, attendance, and classroom behavior that academic quarter.

Psychological Process:

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

Selves (My Own and Others')

Approach to Desired Meaning

What about it?

Changing beliefs about goals

Psychological Question Addressed

How will I accomplish my goals?

Psychological Process 2:

Need

What is the Person Trying to Understand?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

What About it?

Approach to Desired Meaning

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Process 3:

Need

What Desired Meaning is At Stake?

Approach to Desired Meaning

How?

Psychological Question Addressed

Psychological Question Addressed

How will I accomplish my goals?

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Posted By:

Walton & Wilson, 2018